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MyPromoShop Industry Glossary

The ad specialties industry uses a number of unique words which can be confusing if you're new to purchasing promotional items. Don't worry! We've compiled a handy glossary to help you understand the lingo used during the product selection and ordering process. If you ever have any questions please call us and we will explain in detail

 

Abrade

To roughen a mesh surface, yielding what is termed "tooth."
 

Absorption

Property which causes paper to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.
 

Account-opener

Direct premium offered by a bank or savings institution to a depositor opening a new account.
 

Acetate

Silklike in appearance and feel. Resistant to stretch and shrinkage. Fiber-forming substance is cellulose acetate.
 

Acknowledgement

Written notice to a distributor from a supplier that an order has been received.
 

Acrylic

Soft and woolly. Appearance varies from smooth and thin to a thick woven texture. Springs back when crushed.
 

Ad Copy

Lettering imprinted on any item. Usually an advertiser's name, sales message, trademark or slogan.
 

Advance premium

Merchandise given to a new customer on the condition that he or she earns it via a later purchase.
 

Advertiser

Purchaser of specialties. Also know as an end-user or buyer.
 

Advertising specialty

Useful or interesting article or merchandise, usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message, given with no obligation. Also known as a giveaway, adcentive or promotional product.
 

Aetz

Imitation lace made on a Schiffli loom. The end result of the aetzing process.
 

Aetzing

The process of eliminating the base fabric leaving only the threads remaining, resulting in lace.
 

AI (or) .ai

Adobe Illustrator
 

Airbrush

Graphic technique in which ink is applied with compressed air, similar to spray painting, to render a soft, airy effect.

Allover

Continuous embroidery which covers all of the fabric from selvage to selvage.
 

Analog color proof

Off-press color proof made from separation films.
 

Anniversary plan

Goodwill-building promotion in which employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their hiring anniversaries.
 

Anti-static

Prevents the accumulation of static electricity and helps keep the fabric from clinging to the wearer or to other garments.
 

Appliqué

1. An embroidered motif, aetzed or cut, which can be used as a separate embroidered figure (Schiffli embroidery).
2. Fabric, which may or may not be previously embroidered, sewn to another piece of fabric or to a garment.
 

Argyle

Multicolored diamond pattern used in knitwear, especially socks and sweaters.
 

Art

All illustration copy used in preparing a job for printing.
 

Art proof

Artwork submitted for client approval, usually a black and white stat of the camera-ready art.
 

Author's alterations (AAs)

Changes in type at the proof stages, made by and chargeable to the client.
 

Award

Recognition merchandise, often personalized, used to acknowledge performance or milestones.
 

Baby herringbone

Herringbone knit using fine yarns resulting in a lighter and smoother fabrication.
 

Baby pique

Pique knit using fine yarns - same as baby herringbone.
 

Backing

Woven or nonwoven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability.
 

Badge

An insignia of identification

Basket weave

Variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and weft threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. Fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance.
 

Beaded placket

Design detail at the opening of the placket that is formed by rolling the underside of the top placket to the face creating a piped or ridge detail at the edge. Sometimes the beading is in a contrast color.
 

Bean stitch

Three stitches applied back and forth between two points, in the same space as one regular stitch. This stitch is used to provide secure registration in place of a repeated, single stitch outline that may not align properly.
 

Bengaline

Lustrous durable fabric with heavy crosswise ribs, used to make coats and suits.
 

Biowashed

Caps are dyed normally and then very gently washed with stones in a chemical solvent to create a very subtle worn look.
 

Bird's eye

Small diamond pattern accentuated by a dot in the middle, resembling the eye of a bird. Commonly used in suitings.
 

Birthday plan

Sale whereby employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their birthdays.
 

Blanket cloth

Thick heavily fulled woolen fabric with a softly brushed finish similar to an actual blanket, used for outerwear.
 

Blatt stitch

A term used in Schiffli embroidery, referring to zig zag stitches laid close together. In Multihead embroidery, the term is Satin Stitch.
 

Blazer cloth

General term for a variety of flannels and meltons used to make blazers.
 

Bleed

When an illustration runs all the way to the edges of the page or sheet after it's trimmed.
 

Blends

Two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. The most common blend is cotton and polyester.
 

Blind embossing

Design stamped without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.
 

Blind stamping

Hot-stamping without fail. The approach, used often with leather, gives a more subtle imprint than hotstamping and a shallower imprint than debossing.

Bitmap

Any picture you see on a Web page is a bitmap. Bitmaps come in many file formats, such as GIF, JPG, TIF, BMP, PCT, PCX, and DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). They can be read and edited by paint programs and image editors such as Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro. As its name suggests, a bitmap is a map of dots or pixels. If you zoom in or try to scale up a bitmap, it will look blocky. Bitmap files are generally not acceptable as art for imprinting.
 

Bobbin

A pre-wound reel or spool of thread, usually plain white. The contents of the bobbin, the bobbin thread, are stitched to the back of the fabric.
 

Boldface

A heavy typeface used for titles or emphasis.
 

Boiled wool

Thick dense fabric that is heavily fulled to completely obscure its knitted construction. It has the suppleness of a knit, with the ability and shape retention of a woven fabric.
 

Bonding

The joining together of two fabrics permanently with a bonding agent (also known as heat sealing).
 

Bore

A sharp pointed instrument used to puncture goods, part of the Schiffli embroidery machine.
 

Boring

Open-work incorporated into embroidered designs; a sharp-pointed instrument punctures or bores the fabric, and stitches are made around the opening to enclose the raw edges.
 

Boucle

French for buckled, curled or ringed. It describes a knitted or woven fabric characterized by loops, knots, or curls on one or both sides, made with a variety of looped, curled, or slubbed yarns in one or both directions.
 

Branding

A hot die imprint usually burned into leather or wood.
 

Break for color

To separate, by color, elements to be printed in different colors.
 

Brights (Color Families)

Grouping made up of vibrant, primary colors such as blue, green, red, and yellow.
 

Broadcloth

Close plain weave fabric made of cotton, rayon, or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester. The term broadcloth is also used in reference to a plain or twill weave wool or wool-blend fabric that is highly napped (brushed) and then pressed flat.
 

Brushing

Finishing process for knit or woven fabrics where brushes or other devices are used to raise a nap in fabrics to create a novelty surface texture. Used mainly in fall or winter seasons because of its warm feel.
 

Buckram

Liner which adds support to the front of a cap.
 

Bug

Manufacturer's identification mark printed on a form or product, usually in an inconspicuous area.
 

Bullion

A hand made emblem, made with brass or silver hollow thread. These finished emblems are a product of India or Pakistan.
 

Business gift

Merchandise given by a business for goodwill, without obligation to its customers and employees. Also known as an executive gift.
 

Calvary twill

Strong rugged fabric with a pronounced twill line on the back. Made with a steep 63-degree twill weave, worsted yarns and a very tight weave. Used for sportswear, uniforms, coats, and suits.
 

Camera-ready art

Any drawing, photos, illustration or lettering suitable for photographic reproduction.
 

Canvas

Heavy, firm, strong plain weave or basket weave fabric often made of cotton. It is produced in many grades and qualities and may have a soft or firm hand.
 

Cartoon

Prior to the modern method of digitizing on-screen, an enlarged picture or cartoon of a design was drawn, using the industry-standard six to one ratio (the cartoon being six times larger than the resulting design).
 

Casting

Method in which molten metal is forced into a mold of rubber or plaster, then cooled into the desired shape.
 

Chain Stitch

Named for its resemblance to a chain link, this stitch is usually applied using a single head embroidery machine.
 

Chalk stripes

White or light-colored stripes woven against a dark background, like a chalk mark on a blackboard. They are usually more widely spaced than pin stripes.
 

Challis

High-quality, lightweight, especially soft fabric made with tightly spun worsted yarns and a plain weave, although sometimes a twill weave is used. Originally printed with small floral designs, now also made in plain colors and dark all-over prints. Used for scarves, blouses, and dresses.
 

Chambray

Plain weave fabric usually of cotton, rayon, or a blend of these. Chambray usually has yarn dyed yarns in the warp direction, and white yarns in the filling direction. It is often made in striped patterns. It is also frequently made with indigo or pigment dye to face with multiple washings.
 

Chenille

A form of embroidery, widely used in the college apparel markets, in which a large loop stitch is left on the top of the fabric. This embroidery utilizes the chain stitch described above. Uses heavy yarns of wool, cotton, or acrylic. Also known as loop piling.
 

Cheviot

Broad term for rough surfaced, heavily fulled woolen or worsted fabrics used to make suits and overcoats. Chino Twill weave fabric with a slight sheen, often made in a bottom weight fabric of cotton or cotton/polyester. Frequently, it is made of combed, two-ply yarns in both warp and filling and vat-dyed in khaki.
 

Clean-up charge

Factory charge added for the labor costs involved in cleaning the printing press after using a nonstandard ink. Also known as a wash-up charge.
 

Cloisart

Hot-stamp procedure where the desired logo/copy is foil hot-stamped on a solid brass or metal base, then covered with epoxy dome.
 

Cloisonne

Product in which a colored paste, made from ground glass, is applied to recessed areas, then fired at 1400 degrees and polished by stone and pumice to achieve brilliant color. Since gullies and ridges separate each individual color, fine lines between them are difficult to achieve.
 

CMYK

Cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Subtractive colors for four process color reproduction.
 

Color correction

Any method, such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, used to improve color rendition.
 

Color families

Traditional tones are classic and timeless shades often deep and saturated. These colors include navy blue, forest green, burgundy, olive, along with khaki and cream.
 

Color proof

First or early printing of a finished color ad, combining impressions from each of the separate progressive color plates.
 

Color separation

Separation of multicolored original art by camera or laser-scan techniques to produce individual separated colors. There are four common separations: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
 

Colorfast

Prevents the dyed color of a garment from fading due to sunlight, body moisture, laundry bleaches, or stained removal.
 

Column Stitching

Tightly placed zig zag stitching. Straight or curved, it is commonly used in lettering and in borders. Also known as Satin Stitching or Steil stitching.
 

Compacting

Mechanical process in which knit fabrics are compressed in the lengthwise direction to tighten the construction and control shrinkage.
 

Complex fill

A digitizing term used to describe a pre-defined section of a design that includes areas of knock out (fabric show through).
 

Comprehensive layout

Final stage of a layout, finished to very closely resemble how the printed piece will look.
 

Condensed Format

Type of embroidery machine output format. The recording of only the points digitized which are later expanded to include all the stitches the machine will stitch in the format required.
 

Container premium

Product packed inside a special reusable container that is different from the product's standard packaging.
 

Continuity program

Promotion in which a set of related specialties or premiums are offered over a period of time.
 

Continuous tone art

Photography, painting or other piece of art in which black-and-white tones gradually merge into one another.
 

Contrasting

Using an embroidery thread color different from the color of the garment. For example, yellow and white thread used to embroider a navy blue shirt.
 

Coordinating

Thread colors are chosen that coordinate with the garment. For example, a navy blue shirt with a dark green collar and cuffs would have a dark green embroidery.
 

Copy

Written content of advertising or editorial matter in the media.
 

Cotton-carded

Coarse, uneven yarns are made from lower grade short staple cotton fibers into less expensive fabrics.
 

Cotton-combed

Smooth, even yarns are made of long staple cotton fibers into fine weave or fine gauge knit fabrics.
 

Cotton-ring spun

Spinning process that further refines a yarn to achieve the desired yarn size. This results in a smoother and more uniform yarn and produces fabrics that take dyes evenly and have superior hand feel.
 

Cotton-sueded

Fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
 

Cover stitch

Multineedle decorative topstitch traditionally used on underwear, T-shirts, henleys, and long johns, but more recently used as a fashion/design detail on a variety of knits.
 

Cover stitching

Using two needles to overlap threads underneath, covering the over-edged seams with a smoothseamed layer of threads.
 

Covert

Rugged water-repellent fabric made with a compact twill weave and tightly twisted worsted yarns. Usually, two shades of a color are twisted together, creating a two-ply yarn with a flecked or specked appearance. Used for top coats, suits, and sportswear.
 

Crepe

Textured surface fabric found in both wovens and knits. It can be used in knits as the reverse side of a special jacquard. A crinkly surface is achieved via use of high twist yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment. Crepes are available in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends and in may different constructions.
 

Cromalin proof

Chemically created facsimile of a full-color reproduction.
 

Crop

To eliminate a portion of a picture, illustration or photography that contains unnecessary material, or to highlight a certain area of the image.
 

Crop marks

Indicators on artwork to show where an illustration is to be cut or sized.
 

Cross grain

Grain or fibers stitched diagonally or irregularly.
 

Cut

Broad term encompassing all plates associated with letterpress and hot-stamp printing.
 

Cut charge

Factory charge for producing a cut.
 

Deboss and color-fill

Combing hot-stamping with debossing, so foil fills an image that is pushed down into the product.
 

Debossing

Depression of an image into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface.
 

Decal transfer

Imprinting method in which the decal is printed on an offset or letterset press, submerged in water and placed on the product. Excess water and air squeegeed off and the product is kiln-fired, a process that fuses the decal with the glaze.
 

Denim

Twill weave, yarn dyed fabric, usually made of cotton/polyester blend. The warp yarns are colored and the filling yarns are white.
 

Denim weights

Weight is determined by weighing one yard of fabric. Some popular denim weights are: 5 oz., 7 oz., 9.5 oz., 10 oz., 11.5 oz., 12 oz., and 14.5 oz.
 

Density

Amount of stitches in a given area.
 

Diagonal

Another name for any fabric with a visible twill line.
 

Die

Mold into which molten metal, plastic or other material is forced to make a specific shape. Also, a tool of very hard material used to press a particular shape into or onto a softer material.
 

Die charge

FCharge by the supplier for creating a die from artwork supplied by the supplier.
 

Die-casting

Process where molten metal is injected into the cavity of a carved die.
 

Die-cutting

Using sharp steel blades to cut shapes from printed sheets.
 

Die-stamp

Steel plate engraved with the desired image, generally used to apply a gold or silver imprint.
 

Die-striking

Method of producing emblems and other flat specialties. A blank, cut from a metal sheet, is struck with a hammer that holds the die.
 

Digital artwork

Artwork created using computer-assisted design software. Digital color proof Off-press color proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.
 

Dipping

Resin is applied to finished garment. The garment is then creased and dipped in a vat of chemicals to set in the resin.
 

Direct house

Company that manufactures advertising specialties and sells them through its own sales force. Also known as a direct selling house.
 

Distributor

Person or company that represents many advertising specialty suppliers and sells ad specialties and premiums to various buyer companies, often developing promotional programs and employing them. Also know as counselor or jobber.
 

Distributor's net

Price a distributor pays for promotional products.
 

Donegal tweed

Woolen tweed fabric that originated in Donegal, Ireland, characterized by thick, random, multicolored slubs.
 

Double knit

Fabric knitted on a machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (two sets of needles). Contrasts with single needle construction. Double knit fabrics are heavier than single knit fabrics.
 

Double-faced fabric

Thick, heavy, reversible fabric made by weaving two separate cloths together with an extra binder in the warp or filling. Also called double cloth.
 

DPI

Dots per inch. Sometimes expressed as pixels per inch. For bitmap images, the number of individual elements of color information per inch.
 

Drop needle

Knitting technique that disengages a knitting needle so as to prevent knitting a stitch. This results in a vertical rib-like appearance. Typically this technique is done on interlock (double knit) constructions.
 

Drop shadow

Graphic device in which type is reproduced with an offset second image on one edge, giving a shadow effect that visually lifts the primary type and makes the image appear three-dimensional.
 

Drop-shipping

Individual packaging, address and delivery of a product to a specific address, usually the recipient's or client's
 

Dummy

Simulation of a finished printed piece.
 

Dye transfer

In photography, a process of producing color prints by tanning photographic emulsions and using them to transfer dye solutions to film or paper coated with gelatin.
 

Dyed garment

Fabric that has been dyed after the shirt is assembled. Many different types of dyeing process can be used. i.e., pigment, direct, or reactive.
 

Dyeing

Method used to impart color to textiles. It involves the use of complex organic or chemical dyestuffs, which under proper conditions will actually combine with the textile fibers. There are many ways fabric can be dyed.
 

Dyeing - indigo

Indigo dye is a substance taken from the indigo plant. There are many chemical imitation indigo dyes. Indigo dye color can only be achieved through a process of dyeing, where yarn is dipped into a dye bath and is then allowed to oxidize. The number of dips determines the depth of the indigo color, the more dips, the darker the color.
 

Dyeing - piece

Fabrics are dyed solid colors after they have been woven or knit, but before they are sewn into a garment. Piece dyed goods can be used in making solid and color-blocked shirts.
 

Dyeing - pigment

FTextile color by the use of pigments differs from reactive dyes in that pigments do not combine with the fiber molecules as reactive dyes do. Pigments hold onto the textile materials with resin binders in much the same way that paint holds to a wall. It is intentionally expected that pigments will wash out through repeated washings.
 

Dyeing - reactive/wet prints

Reactive print dyeing process produces rich colors that are very colorfast because the dye absorbs or is bonded into the fibers. Reactive dyes produce bright colors on cottons and can dye acrylics, nylon, silk, wool, and blends of these fibers. These prints produce a nice, soft hand. This process is used on print shirts.
 

Dyeing - top

Yarns are dyed before the yarn is spun when the yarns are in the top state, which gives an uneven dyed or heather appearance to the yarn. Top dyeing results in a natural look of the two colors blended. This process is used on heathered and natural color shirts
 

Dyeing - vat

Vat dye is obtained through oxidation. It is usually very bright and will hold up better when bleached than most other dyes. The process is very colorfast in all respects. This is an expensive procedure and is used mainly on high-end products.
 

Dyeing - yarn

Yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the goods and after the spinning of the yarn. Done in either total immersion or partial immersion of the yarn. This process is especially used in patterns such as jacquards and stripes that require knitting.
 

Earthtones (color families)

Neutral shades reminiscent of colors found in nature, such as deserts, mountains, and valleys. Many of these shades serve as a base of apparel, particularly in clothing (suits, etc.). Colors include tan brown, sage, and charcoal.
 

Eco spun

Fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic pop bottles.
 

Electronic engraving

Any artwork from child's signature to a newspaper article can be reproduced as long as it can be wrapped around a cylindrical drum.
 

Embedment

Medallion, logo or everyday object is buried deep in what appears to be solid glass but instead is acrylic.
 

Emblem

Embroidered design with a finished edge, commonly an insignia of identification, usually worn on outer clothing. Also known as a crest or patch.
 

Emboss and color-fill

Combining hot-stamping with embossing (opposite of debossing). A raised image is stamped with foil. True embossing cannot be performed on vinyl.
 

Embossing

Raising of an image on a product, accomplished by pressing the material between concave and convex dies.
 

Embroidery

Art of creating and producing ornamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with high-luster threads either by hand or machine. Logo is digitized into a "tape". Machine reads tape to stitch logo onto surface of product. Usually includes up to 5 colors of threads in one logo. Pricing is based on stitch count. Embroidery cannot be PMS Matched.
 

End-on-end

Knit process using two yarns of alternating colors to create a microstripe pattern. In a woven, a pattern in which the warp alternates between two colors.
 

End-user

Purchaser of a promotional product. The recipient is one it's given to.
 

Engineered stripes

Usually yarn dyed knitwear made on modern knitting equipment with wide bands of multiple colors. The effect is not possible to achieve on less sophisticated repeat machines. This is a jersey or pique fabric with different, more complicated needle selections.
 

Engraving

Cutting an image into metal, wood or glass by one of three methods; computerized engraving, hand tracing or hand engraving.
 

Enzyme wash

Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed.
 

EPS or .eps (Encapsulated Postscript)

A type of graphics file written in the PostScript language. Vector-based .eps files are the preferred format for artwork used in the promotional products industry.
 

Etched

Imprinting method in which the product to be imaged is coated with a protective coating that resists acid. The image is then exposed, leaving bare metal and protected metal. The acid attacks only the exposed metal, leaving the image etched onto the surface.
 

Facing

Material hooped or placed on top of fabrics that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth, prior to embroidery. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it.
 

Fair Isle

Traditional knitted patterns or horizontal bands of geometric and floral designs against a contrasting background. Named after Fair Isle, the most southern of the Shetland Isles off the northern coast of Scotland, where authentic Fair Isle sweaters are made by hand from Shetland wool.
 

Felt

Nonwoven fabric made by layering thin sheets of carded wool fibers, then applying heat, moisture, and pressure to shrink and compress the fibers into a thick matted cloth that will not ravel or fray.
 

Fired decals

Decal that actually becomes part of the piece to which it is applied.
 

Fisherman knits

Distinctive knitted patterns that originated on the Aran Islands off the coast of Ireland. Each family had its own highly recognized patterns, which were used to identify the remains of fishermen lost at sea.
 
 

Flannel

Light to heavyweight plain or twill weave fabric with a napped surface. Can be made of cotton or wool. The brushing process creates insulating air cells that provide more warmth than plain cotton.
 
 

Flax/linen

Flax is the plant, linen yarns are made from flax. Linen is stronger that cotton. It is one of the oldest textile fibers known.
 
 

Fleece

Luxurious fabric with a thick deep nap that provides warmth without weight. May be twill or plain weave. The term correctly applies only to wool fabrics, although there are so-called fleeces of other fabrics.
 
 

Flexography

Imprinting method for paper in which a flexible rubber plate is wrapped around a cylinder. As the paper moves under the plate, it is pressed against it by another roller, and the ink is transferred on the paper.
 
 

Foil stamping

Process in which a metal plate or die is heated and then pressed against foil into a surface, causing the pigments of the foil to transfer to the surface. Also called hot-stamping.
 

Font

Used to describe a complete typeset from a particular typeface. Examples include Helvetica, Times New Roman, Arial, etc.
 

Four-color process

Printing process that creates color productions by overprinting screens that individually print reds, yellows, blues and blacks of variable specified intensities.
 

French Terry

Pile knit fabric with uncut loops on one side. It is called fleece if the loops are sheared and brushed. A pile, woven fabric with uncut loops is called terrycloth.
 

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. A protocol agreed upon to transfer files over the Internet from one location to another. Used in the industry to transfer artwork files that are too big to e-mail.
 

Fulfillment house

Service firm that processes premium and specialty orders, often packaging and mailing the items. Other services offered include warehousing, accounting, and coupon-redemption management.
 

Full-fashioned

Knitting process whereby the pattern shape of an individual garment piece is formed on the knitting machine as opposed to being cut from a piece of cloth. Full-fashioned garments are typically expensive sweater knits where the sleeve is knit together with the body of the machine. Full fashioned collar trims allow for one to control the shape/angle of the collar points
 

Gabardine

Popular fabric with a smooth face and a dull sheen, made with a tight twill weave and worsted yarns. Fabric has a distinct, closely set diagonal rib on the face and a plain back. Made in various weights for men's and women's outerwear, sportswear, suits, dresses, and uniforms.
 

Garment wash

Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured that softens and pre-shrinks.
 

Garment-washed

This means a cap has been sewn and made and then washed in a washing facility. This creates the popular faded, worn look around the edges and looks more natural than the material pre-washed caps.
 

Gauge

Measure of the fineness or coarseness of knit fabrics. Refers to the number of loops (knit stitches) in an inch. The higher the gauge, the finer the fabric.
 

Giveaway

A low-cost item handed out fairly freely-akin to an advertising specialty or a traffic builder. Now also sometimes used as a term for any direct premium.
 

GIF File

A type of bitmap image file that Branders.com supports for artwork upload. Files of this type have a .gif suffix.
 

Grommet-sewn slot

Caps that have a back strap made of cotton or leather and buckle, and have a slot where the end of the strap tucks into the hat. This slot can either be trimmed with stitching creating a sewn slot, or with a metal creating a grommet
 

Gun club check

Double-check design that uses three colors to form a larger check over a smaller check.
 

Gusset

Gusset Inlaid piece of fabric, usually triangular, between arm and body of shirt. Allows ease of movement.
 

Half-moon label mount

Fabric sewn inside the back of the garment just below the neck to add hanger appeal and to allow for placement of the label without visible stitches.
 

Halftone

Engraving made by photographing through a glass screen that breaks the subject into small dots of varying intensities of gray, ranging from white to black.
 

Hand

Quality of characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch, e.g., softness, firmness, drapability, fineness of the feel.
 

Hand or manual engraving

Hand or manual engraving Used for detailed work on materials ranging from metal to eggshells. Not practical for volume orders.
 

Heat-transfer printing (direct transfer process)

Imprinting method in which an image is screened onto a transfer substrate, which is then laid directly on the material to be imprinted. The image is transferred from the substrate to the material through heat and pressure.
 

Heat-transfer printing (sublimation)

Process in which a design is transferred to a synthetic fabric by heat and pressure. The heat causes the inks to turn into a gas so that they penetrate the fabric and combine with it to form a permanent imprint. Also called a plastocal transfer.
 

Heather yarn

Tow (or more) toned yarn which is knit or woven to create a soft tonal effect.
 

Henley

Knit shirt with buttoned placket at the neckline with no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by a rower in Henley, England.
 

Herringbone

Broken twill weave fabric created by changing the direction of twill from right to left and back again. This creates a chevron pattern. Herringbone fabrics are made in a variety of weights, patterns, and fiber types. Herringbone patterns can also be knitted as a jacquard.
 

Hologram

Combination of several layers of refractive material that causes the image to have a three-dimensional effect.
 

Homespun

Rough, coarse, tweed-like fabric made with thick, uneven yarns and a plain weave. Once made by hand, now produced on power looms.
 

Hot stamping

Dry imprinting process in which a design or type is set on a relief die that is subsequently impressed by heat and pressure onto the printing surface.
 

Houndstooth

Popular wool pattern made with a variation of the twill weave to form jagged broken checks. It is not widely used to make many types of fabrics, especially suitings.
 

Illustrator by Adobe

Adobe® Illustrator® is industry standard illustration software that creates graphically rich artwork for print or the Web. It provides powerful and flexible tools for PostScript®.
 

Imagesetter

Device that outputs type, line art and photos in position.
 

Imprinted product

Merchandise featuring a company's logo, slogan, or other corporate identification.
 

Injection molding

Process in which molten metal or plastic is injected into the cavity of a carved die.
 

Italic

In type, letter forms that slope to the right.
 

Intaglio

Design that is impressed into its base material.
 

Interlock

Firm double knit fabric. Both sides of the fabric look the same (similar to the face of jersey). Used in short sleeve knit shirts.
 

Jacquard

Type of woven or knitted fabric, which is constructed on a special machine that uses needle selection which results in intricate, complex all-over designs. Single knit jacquards are commonly knit with two separate colored yarns that are knit together in a row. Double knit jacquards are knit with up to five separate colored yarns across a row. Double knits are generally much more intricate, more colorful and yet heavier (mostly used in long sleeve product). Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry.
 

Jersey

Single knit construction which has rows of vertical loops (knit stitches) on the face and rows of horizontal half-loops (purl stitches) on the back. Jersey can be any fiber content and can be knit flat or circular. Often used in short sleeve knit shirts.
 

Jewel Tones (Color Families)

Are still deeper, saturated, more vibrant colors that include brights, such as emerald green, ruby red, and sapphire blue that cross seasons.
 

JPG/JPEG (or) .jpg/.jpeg

Joint Photographic Experts Group is a standard compression format for high-resolution color images. JPG files are a type of bitmap and are generally not suitable for submitting artwork for imprint or embroidery.
 

Kern

To add or delete space between pairs of adjacent characters. Also known as letterspacing.
 

Keyline drawing

Outline drawing on finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.
 

Khaki

Light brown cotton used for Indian army uniforms.
 

Knit

Fabrics constructed by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns by hand or by machine. Can be any fiber content. (See double knit, interlock, and jersey).
 

Lambswool

Coated with clear plastic, or two separate sheets of paper joined together as a single sheet to provide a special thickness or varying colors from side to side.
 

Laminated

Process in which a metal plate or die is heated and then pressed against foil into a surface, causing the pigments of the foil to transfer to the surface. Also called hot-stamping.
 

Laser engraving

Imprinting method by which art or lettering is cut into a material by a laser beam that vaporizes the portion exposed through openings in a template.
 

Leather

Has subcategories, including genuine (top-grain or full grain leather from the outermost layer of hide); splits (underlayers split off from the top grain, usually having a surface treatment to simulate color and grain of genuine leather), and processed leather (one type of skin or hide made to resemble another type usually called "bonded leather" or "laminated leather").
 

Lenticular printing

Lenticular printing Process of creating multidimensional, animated or biview effects by photographing with an extremely fine screen and placing plastic made up of tiny lenses over the top.
 

Lettering Embroidery

Lettering Embroidery using letters or words. Lettering, commonly called "keyboard lettering," may be created from circuit boards that allow variance of letter style, size, height, density, and other characteristics.
 

Letterpress printing

Printing method in which ink is carried on a raised surface to the page or object being printed.
 

Line art

Black-and-white illustration of reproduction quality.
 

Line conversion

Photograph reproduction as a line illustration, accomplished by shooting the photo without a screen and omitting the middle tones.
 

Litho laminating

Process of mounting a printed lithography sheet to single-faced corrugated to produce a display-quality piece that is structural corrugated.
 

Locker loop

Looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment of a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of the garment.
 

Locker patch

Semi-oval panel sewn into the back of the garment just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment to minimize stretching when hung on a hook.
 

Logo or Logotype

Style of lettering or design of a company used as a trademark to identify itself.
 

Lycra

Dupont's trademark from spandex fiber. Spandex has excellent stretch and is always blended with other fibers, imparting stretch to the resulting fabric
 

Madras

Hand loomed Indian cotton fabric in plaids, checks, or stripes all colorfully intermingled. Because the yarn is dyed with natural vegetable dyes, colors run together (bleeding), producing a muted effect. The weave itself has many slubs and imperfections.
 

Matte finish

Dull finish without gloss or luster.
 

Mechanical

Final make-up of a printed layout before transformation onto a printing plate.
 

Melton

Dense, thick coating fabric with a smooth face, made with a tight plain or twill weave and two sets of softly twisted filling yarns. It is heavily fulled napped to hide all traces of the weave. Named for Melton Mowbray, a town in Leicestershire, England, where the original cloth was used to make hunting outfits.
 

Mercerization

Improves the quality of cotton fibers and fabrics. Provides added strength, luster, and ability to accept and hold dyes. Mercerization is a chemical process that swells the yarn, resulting in a smoother and more dye receptive yarn/fabric.
 

Merchandise proof

Product imprinted with the specified design/copy of an issued purchase order, used to clarify the appearance of the product and the imprint prior to manufacturing.
 

Merino

Very fine wool from the Merino breed of sheep, used to make the finest of woolen and worsted cloths.
 

Metal casting

Production method in which jewelry or other material is shaped by covering a mold with molten metal.
 

Microfiber

Super fine polyester filament yarn recently developed. Microfiber has superior hand feel and draping characteristics to ordinary polyester yarn. Because the fabric is high-count polyester or nylon yarns, it is durable, water-repellent, and windproof, and retains its color, resilience, and soft touch.
 

Midtones

Transitional colors such as dusty blue, rose pink, sunflower yellow, and salmon that cross seasons and climates, and are less intense than jewel tones.
 

Moiré

Screen pattern caused by the clash of dot patterns when two or more screens are used.
 

Molded materials

Made by pouring molten plastic (usually polypropylene) into a cavity to make a hard, seamless shell.
 

Monogram

Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually the initials in a name.
 

Mounting and finishing

Manufacturing of a display, applying litho, die-cutting and assembly.
 

Multi-line rep

Independent contractor representing several different supplier lines.
 

Multifilament

Screenprinting fabric made of two or more strands of material twisted around one another
 

Nail head

General term for a variety of small woven patterns, including bird's eye, dots and small houndstooth. It is usually associated with clear finished worsted suitings, such as sharkskin.
 

Nap

Raised surface or pile of a fabric, such as fleece, formed by distressing it.
 

Nonrepro blue

Color that does not reproduce in final production, used to mark instructions and corrections on cameraready art.
 

Nylon

Woven fabric featuring high strength, high abrasion resistance, low absorbency and good elasticity. Texture varies from smooth and crisp to soft and bulky.
 

Offset lithography

Printing process in which the image is transferred to a rubber blanket, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed.
 

Offset printing

Printing process in which a positive image is transferred to a rubber blanket in reverse, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed, right reading.
 

Ombre

Design that has graduations in color, usually it is shades of one family of color or can change colors, such as from green to blue.
 

Opacity

Heaviness of ink coverage.
 

Overlay proof

Off-press color proof produced with four dyed or pigmented overlay films.
 

Overrun

Ad specialties produced in excess of the number originally ordered.
 

Oxford

Soft, somewhat porous and rather stout cotton shirting weave gives a silk like finish, also made from spun rayon, acetate, and other man-made fibers. Oxford also means a woolen or worsted fabric with a grayish cast.
 

Pad printing

Method of imprinting in which a recessed surface is covered with ink. When the plate is wiped clean, ink remains in the recessed area. A silicone pad then presses against the plate, pulls the ink out of the recesses and is pressed directly against the product.
 

Paisley

Abstract scroll pattern that originated in Paisley, Scotland.
 

Panels (Caps)

Five and six-panel caps. Six panels sewn together from the crown of the cap creating a seam down the front of the cap. Good for embroidery, but not a good choice for printing. A five-panel cap has five panels sewn together to form the crown of the cap. Since there is not seam down the front of the cap, five panels are an ideal choice for printing and embroidery.
 

Pantograph (Engraving)

Master letters or designs are traced with a stylus that is connected to and followed by a cutting tool that pushes the lettering or image into metal. Used in many jewelry shops to engrave silver-plated bowls and cups.
 

Pantone Matching System (PMS)

Color scale used to precisely match colors for printing. Each hue has a coded number indicating instructions for mixing inks to achieve that hue.
 

Paper proof

Impression of type or artwork on paper so the correctness and quality of the material to be printed can be checked. The least expensive is a regular black and white faxed paper proof. The most expensive is an actual physical preproduction sample of the product itself.
 
 

Paste-up

Act of producing mechanical art.
 
 

Pastels (Color Families)

Pastels (Color Families) Soft unwashed colors such as sky blue, seafoam green, coral, baby pink, and butter yellow that are used predominantly in spring and summer deliveries and in warmer climates.
 
 

Peach finish

Soft hand usually obtained by brushing the fabric lightly. It can also be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.
 
 

Pencil rub

Low-cost way of producing a "sample" of an embroidery design. Consists literally of a piece of tracing paper placed over a sew-out and rubbed lightly with a pencil to produce an impression for the embroidery.
 
 

Permanent press

Permanent press Improves the wrinkle recovery and shape retention qualities of fabrics.
 

Personalize

To imprint the recipient's name on a particular product.
 

Phantom

Transparent image or ghost superimposed over a subject.
 

Photoetching

Printing process using an acid solution to etch a photograph onto a metal surface.
 

Photographic imaging (Engraving)

1. Photometal processes actually develop metal by using photosensitive, anodized aluminum in either metal stock or metal sheet stock. 2. Chemical etching uses negative or camera-ready artwork, exposes it and coats the metal using acid or other more toxic chemicals to eat away impressions on the metal not covered by film.
 

Photomechanical transfer

Diffusion-transfer process used to resize or copy images.
 

Photostate

Black-and-white reproduction of original art, generally not acceptable as "camera-ready" art.
 

Pigment-dyed

Caps are colored with a particular pigment that reacts with the washing to create a faded look.
 

Pincheck

Very small check pattern that is popular for suits, sportswear and outerwear.
 

Pique

Single knit construction also known as honeycomb or mesh. An open knit surface with a coarser hand than jersey or interlock.
 

Plackets

(Slits in apparel forming a closure). A small boxed area at the bottom of where the buttons are.
 

Plain weave

Simplest, most common of three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). Provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill. (See Broadcloth, Chambray, and Poplin).
 

Plate

Rubber or metal image carrier that transfers ink to the printing surface.
 

Polyester

Versatile in weights and textures for weaves and knits. Resists wrinkling. Excellent shape retention.
 

Poplin

Medium to heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Usually poplin is constructed with fine yarn, densely woven, resulting in a crisp, dressy appearance.
 

Position proof

Color proofs for checking position, layout and/or color breakout of image elements.
 

Positive

Image reproduction with the same density values as the original.
 

Post-cure

Resin treated fabric is cut and sewn. The finished garment is then cured in a high temperature curing oven.
 

Press Proof

Proof of a color subject made on printing press in advance of the production run.
 

Profile (Caps)

Height of a cap's crown. Low-profile is approximately 3.5". Regular profile is approximately 3.75". Pro-style is somewhere in-between the two.
 

Progressive proofs

Color proofs that show the reproduction of each color plate separately and in combination with each other. Also called color keys.
 

Promotional product

Useful or interesting article of merchandise usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message.
 

Proof

Proof Impression of type or artwork on paper to allow the correctness and quality of the material to be checked.
 

Proportion

Design concept expressing an element's relationship of length to width.
 

Puff prints

Screening process using puff inks. After screening, the product is exposed to heat. A chemical additive in the ink causes it to rise, creating a raised surface.
 

Quilting

A padded filling sandwiched between two layers of material. Often used to add warmth to a garment.
 

Rack stitch

Knit pattern produced by a shift in the needle bed that creates a herringbone effect.
 

Raglan

Raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck. It makes for ease of movement.
 

Ramie

Ramie Strong staple fiber of cellulose yielded by the inner bark of the ramie plant. Often used as a less expensive substitute for linen or cotton.
 

Random sample

Single copy of a product with a random imprint.
 

Rayon

High absorbency, bright or dull luster, pleasant hand. Does well in brilliant colors.
 

Register marks

Cross-hair marks applied to negatives, artwork, photographs or mechanicals to ensure precise register on the final product.
 

Registration (hot-stamping)

Process by which two or more hot-stamps are aligned, so the multicolored foils fit the image area perfectly.
 

Reprocessed wool

Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products that have not been used by a consumer, including dyed or undyed yarn, and fabric scraps from mills and clothing manufacturers. The wool is returned to fiber form and spun into new yarns, which are used to make fabrics of low to medium quality.
 

Restricted line

Product line where a supplier specifies the minimum volume, credit or geographic location of distributors permitted to sell it.
 

Retouching

Process of improving/highlighting necessary details in a picture, photograph, print or drawing.
 

Reused wool

Reused wool Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products after they have been used by consumers. The wool is returned to fiber form, cleansed or overdyed, and spun again into new yarns, which are used to make inexpensive low-quality fabrics.
 

Reverse

Mirror like inversion of elements on a printing plate in relation to their order on the surface printed from it.
 

Reverse jersey

Reverse jersey Knit that uses the back side of jersey fabric for the face of the garment.
 

Rib knit

Knitted fabric produced with two sets of needles (double knit) in which the vertical rows of loops (wales) can be seen alternately on the face and back. Stretch in the width is excellent.
 

Romance card

Usually a card or small folder containing information relating to the origin or history of the specialty that it accompanies.
 

Rotary

Relies on a computer and controller to send messages concerning the desired design to a flat-bed engraving table.
 

Rotogravure

A type of printing, utilizing an etched copper cylinder.
 

Rubylith

Clear orange coating on an acetate base, used in preparing camera-ready artwork when one or more colors will be used. Also know as amberlith.
 

Sand wash

Sand wash Sand is added to the piece of garment washing process to create a subtle weathered look. Results in a soft, lightly brushed feel. Used mainly in woven fabrics.
 

Sanforized

Controls the shrinkage of fabrics to less than 1%.
 

Sans-serif Type

Sans-serif Type A type style without cross strokes at the end of the main strokes.
 

Saxony

General term for especially high-quality fabrics of merino wool, usually used for coats and suits. The term originally described fabrics made only from the wool of Saxony sheep, a superior strain of merino developed in Germany.
 

Score

To impress a mark in a sheet of paper to facilitate folding and help it lie flat.
 

Screen

Series of dots used to reproduce halftones or blended colors. As the percentage of screen increases, the color prints darken.
 

Screen charge

Screen charge Charge by suppliers for creating a silkscreen of the artwork used for imprinting products.
 

Screen tints

Process in which shading and tinting are added to a line reproduction.
 

Screenprinting

Imprinting method in which the image is transferred to the printed surface by ink squeegeed through a stenciled screen stretched over a frame. Screens are treated with a light-sensitive emulsion, then film positives are put in contact with the screens and exposed to light. The light hardens the emulsion not covered by the film, leaving a soft area on the screen for the squeegee to force ink through. Also called silkscreening.
 

Seersucker

Seersucker Lightweight cotton type, color striped fabric with permanent lengthwise alternating puckered striped and felt stripe sections.
 

Serif type

Serif type Any typeface with letters having a cross stroke at the end of the main stroke.
 

Set-up charge

Set-up charge Special charges added to certain products in a catalog. It covers the cost of preparing the type for the press and the actual printing.
 

Sharkskin

High-quality worsted suiting fabric with a smooth sleek face and a slightly iridescent sheen, resembling the skin of a shark. Made with a twill weave, and yarns of alternating colors, usually a lighter color with a darker one. It may be plain or woven with fancy patterns.
 

Sheepskin

Sheepskin General term for a tanned hide with the wool still intact. Used to make exceptionally durable outerwear.
 

Sheeting

Simplest, most common of the three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). It provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill.
 

Sherpa fleece

Sherpa fleece Fleece fabric where the brushed/napped side is used as the face of the garment.
 

Shetland

Very fine, lustrous wool from the downy soft undercoat of Shetland sheep, raised on the Shetland Islands off the northern coast of Scotland. Available in limited quantities of natural colors and used to make software, knitwear, sportswear, and coats. The term has been used rather loosely by the apparel industry to describe similar fabrics and clothing, especially sweaters, made from coarser types of wool.
 

Shipping date

Shipping date Date an order should be shipped from the factory to the purchasing client.
 

Silk

Lightweight fabrics with natural, deep luster. Shiny surface. Versatile in weight and texture. Long wearing.
 

Singles

Term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn. The smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.
 

Solid

Printed area without type or other illustrations.
 

Spec sample

A product sample carrying a prospective buyers' imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.
 

Specialty advertising

SMedium of advertising, sales promotion and motivational communication employing imprinted, useful or decorative products called advertising specialties; a subset of promotional products.
 

Speculative (spec) sample

Speculative (spec) sample Product sample carrying a prospective buyer's imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.
 

Spot color

A single consistent color used throughout an area.
 

Stain-resistant

Controls the penetration of spots and stains.
 

Stat paper

Photo print of an art made by a camera. Use stat paper only on final proofs before going to production.
 

Step-and-repeat

Step-and-repeat Same image printed continuously in a pattern on the same sheet of paper.
 

Stock designs

Digitized generic embroidery designs that are readily available at a cost below that of custom-digitized designs.
 

Stone wash

Pumice stones (lava rock) are added to the piece or garment washing process resulting in a soft and abraded worn appearance, particularly along seams.
 

Storm flap

Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of outerwear garments to form a barrier against wind and moisture.
 

Stripping

Attaching, putting together or assembling in negative film from the separate elements of an ad, brochure, flyer or other printed materials into one cohesive unit.
 

Sublimation

Dye transfer process where the image consists of a colored dye permanently embedded into the material surface of pores. Used to imprint messages, graphics and photographs on a variety of items, primarily mousepads, mugs, T-shirts, caps and trophy medals.
 

Plate

Rubber or metal image carrier that transfers ink to the printing surface.
 

Sueded nylon

A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.
 

Supplier

A company that offers for sale, usually through distributors, Promotional Products it manufacturers or imprints according to buyer specifications. Also known as a manufacturer. (Note: In Canada, a supplier of Promotional Products is known as a distributor). Factory Direct is the actual factory in China and in the US so it eliminates the middle men.
 

Swatch proof

Sample of the material of the product to be purchased, imprinted with the advertising artwork in the colors specified for the imprint.
 

Swiss

Satin stitch embroidery. Embroidery remains a government-support industry in Switzerland today
 

Tackle twill

Letters or numbers cut from polyester or rayon twill fabric that are commonly used for athletic teams and organizations. Tackle twill appliqués attached to a garment have an adhesive backing that tacks them in place; the edges of the appliqués are then zipzap stitched.
 

Tartan

Woolen fabric made with a plain or twill weave in a variety of different plaid patterns, each belonging to a specific Scottish clan.
 

Taslon

Durable nylon fabric that is generally used for rugged outerwear.
 

Tattersall check

Simple check pattern with a loud appearance, made with two colors against a white or contrasting background. Gaudy combinations of bold colors are common. Checks are usually about a half-inch square.
 

Temperature reactive or thermocromatic inks

Process of applying a special ink that disappears to reveal a hidden message when heat is applied. For instance, used on a mug so that when hot liquid is poured into, the message appears or on a glass, so that when cold liquid is poured into it, the message appears.
 

Tencel

Produced by Courtaulds from the cellulose in harvested wood pulp. Fabrics with Tencel have superior shrinkage control characteristics. The unique properties produce deep vibrant colors.
 

Terrain cloth

High-density air-textured nylon.
 

Thermal engraving

Melts an image into the metal, based on a die. Often used for small items such as name badges and small signs.
 

Thermal dye sublimation

Like thermal printers, except pigments are vaporized and float to desired proofing stock. Similar to Thermal Dye Diffusion Transfer, or D2T2.
 

Thermography

Means of imprinting in which powder is added to the image to be printed. When heated, the powder fuses with the ink, and the image appears in relief.
 

TIFF File

Stands for Tagged Image File Format. This is another bitmap file format that is supported for Artwork Upload.
 

Tint block

A photoengraving used to print tints of any percentage of color.
 

Tip-in

Preprinted card bound or partially bound into a periodical.
 

Tip-on

To attach endsheets or other material to the outside of folded sections by machine applications of thin strip of adhesive.
 

Tonal

Using a matching color thread to embroider a garment. For example, a navy shirt tonal embroidery would use a matching navy thread to create an embossed look.
 

Tone-on-tone

Tone-on-tone Different shades of the same color as the garment are used for embroidery thread. For example, a navy blue shirt with a light blue and royal blue embroidery.
 

Torqued

Natural twisting that occurs when a circular knit fabric is in a relaxed state. A circular knit is knit in a spiral motion and therefore "straight" stripes want to twist. This phenomenon usually occurs in poor quality jacquard knits and is minimized by compacting and the use of stabilizing resins.
 

Transparency

Full-color, translucent, photographic film positive.
 

Transparent ink

Printing ink that does not completely conceal the color of the carrying material beneath.
 

Trapping

Process of adjusting adjacent colors to account for misregistration, which occurs due to the complex machinery of the press and because materials stretch and shift during printing.
 

Tricotine

High-quality worsted fabric with a 63-degree, double twill on the face of the cloth. Belongs to the same family as gabardine, whipcord, covert and cavalry twill. Various weights are used for men's and women's clothing.
 

Trim size

Finished size of a printed piece after waste is trimmed away.
 

Tweed

Rough durable woolen cloth with irregular slubs or knots on the surface, made with a twill or herringbone weave. Multicolored yarns are produced by adding colored nubs prior to spinning. Early tweeds were characterized by a very hairy face and scratchy hand. Today, many tweeds are flattened and shaven to soften them. Made in various weights and patterns and used for suits, sportswear and coats.
 

Twill

One of the three basic weaves (the others are plain and satin). It is characterized by a diagonal rib (twill) generally running upward from left to right (right hand twill). Left hand twill (traditional denim weave) has the diagonal rib running upward from right to left. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable firm fabric.
 

Twill-broken

Broken twill is a variation on traditional twill resulting in a very soft and flexible fabric.
 

Type transfer

Type transfer Sheet of type created through a photographic and chemical process which can be transferred onto almost any surface by burnishing the back of the sheet.
 

Typeface

General term used to describe the styles of lettering available in typesetting.
 

Typeset

To create type of a quality usable for reproduction, whether electronically or mechanically
 

Underrun

Number of products less than what was originally ordered.
 

Unstructured slouch

Caps with no buckram are unstructured. Many of the latest caps have the "floppy" look. Can be scrunched up and stuffed in a back pocket.
 

Urethane coatings

Water and stain repellents are applied to the nylon fabric surface to add to the appearance of luggage.
 

Varnish

Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection, appearance or to prevent fingerprinting.
 

Vector graphics

Vector graphics use computer algorithms to describe shapes, lines, animation, etc. The technology of vector graphics is growing in popularity because the images are scalable and smaller in file size, a plus for online viewing and downloading. Vector graphics were developed in response to the limitations of raster-based graphics (popularly known as GIF and JPEG) because raster graphics use pixel-by-pixel definitions. Vector-based files are the preferred way to submit artwork for imprinting and embroidery.
 

Vegetable (Color Families)

SRich, saturated colors that are used primarily in fall and winter deliveries. They include the colors eggplant, pumpkin and gold that are inspired by the hues of vegetables and fall foliage.
 

Velox

Photoprint with halftone dot pattern in place of continuous tone, ready for line reproduction.
 

Vignette

Illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.
 

Vinyl

Stain resistant plastic material used for coverings and trims in luggage. Available in a wide range of colors.
 

Virgin wool

Wool shorn from live sheep that has not been used in any form prior to its being processed into any sort of textile product.
 

Warp

Lengthwise grain in woven fabric.
 

Wash Drawings

Line drawings in which the middle tones have been retained.
 

Water repellency

Ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.
 

Waterproof/breathable

Ability to keep water from penetrating, but permits water vapor to pass through. There are more than 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproof and water vapor permeability.
 

Weather resistant

Loose term referring primarily to a fabric's windresistant and water-repellent properties Waterresistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. The greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.
 

Web-fed press

Press that prints from a continuous roll of paper. COPYRIGHT© 1996-2006 The Advertising Specialty Institute. All rights reserved. 51
 

Weft

Crosswise grain in a woven fabric. Weft is also known as "fill."
 

Weight

Visual effect of the thickness or thinness of text, rules or logos.
 

Welt

1. Strip between a shoe sole and upper through which they are stitched or stapled together. 2. A double edge, strip, insert, or seam for ornament or reinforcement.
 

Welt collar/cuff

A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeved garments.
 

Whipcord

Compact worsted twill fabric with prominent diagonal cords that run from the lower left to the upper right. Long-wearing utility cloth is used for suits, sportswear, and uniforms. It resembles, but is much coarser than, tricotine and gabardine.
 

White space

Space on a page not occupied by type, pictures or other elements.
 

Windowpane

Simple, boxy check or plaid pattern using a minimum of colors and thin lines to form large squares or rectangles with clear centers, like windowpanes.
 

Wool

Natural deep luster. Long wearing. Sheds water naturally. Springs back if creased or crushed.
 

Wool satin

Luxurious worsted fabric with a lustrous face, made with tightly twisted yarns and a satin weave. Woven Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other.
 

Wrinkle-free

Basic process of imparting the wrinkle free finish into the fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension. Pre-cured wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been produced. Post-cure wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured. Because the postcure wrinkle free process is set into the final pressed garment, it is more popular.